29 Sep 2020
The University of Rwanda-College of Agriculture Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine invites you to the weekly research seminar – all are welcome. In this research seminar we are pleased to welcome three speakers. Date : Wednesday, September 30th, 2019 Time : 2:00p.m Venue : virtually.
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Moderator : Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro ,
Minutes takers : Elias Nelly BAPFAKURERA, Research and Innovation Officer, UR-CAVM
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Tentative agenda : 30 September 2020 from -14:00-16h30
Time Presentation/activity(ies) Presenter/Responsible
13:40-13:50 Arrival and registration of participants All
13:50-14:00 Introduction of participants All
14:00-14:10 Welcome remarks Principal, UR-CAVM
14:10-14:15 Welcoming of the presenters Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro
14:15-14:30 Banana Xanthomonas wilt and potato bacterial wilt in Rwanda. Biology, risk factors and farmer’s awareness. Dr. Uwamahoro Florence
14:30-14:45 Q&A Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro
14:45-15:00 God, Stewardship and Agriculture Bridge to Rwanda by Rosine
15:00-15:15 Q&A Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro
15:15-15:30 Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield and Quality Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Rates in Rwanda Dr.Adrien Turamyenyirijuru
15:30-15:45 Q&A Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro
15:45-16:00 Open Discussion Dr. Simon Rukera Tabaro
16:00-16:15 Wrap up +Research seminar program and objectives Dr. Uwamahoro Florence, Ag.DRI
16:15-16 : 30 Closing remarks and adjournment Principal
Dr Florence UWAMAHORO
Biography : Dr. Florence Uwamahoro is a young PhD Graduate in Biology with Specialization in Plant Pathology from the Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU). Florence holds a MSc Degree in Plant Pathology from the University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS) Bangalore-India and BSc Degree in Crop Production and Horticulture from the former National University of Rwanda (NUR). She has four peer-reviewed publications within the field of Plant Pathology and has research interests in bacterial diseases, epidemiology, pesticide toxicology etc. At UR-CAVM, Florence is a Lecturer in Crop Sciences department and currently she is the Acting Director of Research and Innovation.
Title : Banana Xanthomonas wilt and potato bacterial wilt in Rwanda. Biology, risk factors and farmer’s awareness.
Abstract : Banana (Musa spp.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) are important food and cash crops worldwide as they contribute to food security and income generation for farmers. Despite their importance, banana and potato do not reach their potential production due to a number of limitations, including pests and diseases. In Rwanda, banana xanthomonas wilt caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and potato bacterial wilt caused by the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex (RSSC) are the major diseases of banana and potato respectively. These disease-causing bacteria have similar transmission means and the two crops are vegetatively propagated. Little is known about these diseases in Rwanda. The aim of this study was to investigate the biology, risk factors and farmers’ awareness of banana xanthomonas wilt and potato bacterial wilt and how they affect disease occurrence in Rwanda. Surveys revealed that both diseases were present in major and minor growing areas for potato and banana. Banana xanthomonas wilt incidence varied between 27 to 77 % in 2015 and from 26 to 86% in 2016. Disease incidence ranged between 5 and 24 % in 2014 for potato bacterial wilt. These records are high considering the importance of the crops. The farmers’ knowledge and implementation of management strategies were insufficient for both diseases, due to inaccessibility to adequate information. Cultural practices such as mono-cropping, intercropping, wide spacing and avoidance of sharing tools were highly associated with low potato bacterial wilt occurrence (p < 0.05), whereas dense spacing, intercropping and beer bananas were linked to high occurrence of banana xanthomonas wilt (p < 0.05). The population of the RSSC causing potato bacterial wilt in Rwanda is dominated by phylotype II strains (Ralstonia solanacearum emend. Safni).
The isolates used in host range and cultivar susceptibility tests to the bacteria, X. campestris pv. musacearum and R. solanacearum, infected only banana or potato respectively and their close relatives, and all the inoculated cultivars were susceptible but at relatively different levels. These studies have improved our understanding of banana xanthomonas wilt and potato bacterial wilt in Rwanda, and provided important insights towards development and communication of sustainable management approach for the diseases, which in turn will improve food security in the country.
Keywords : bacterial diseases, detection, infection pathways, management, Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.
Dr. Adrien TURAMYENYIRIJURU (PhD)
Biography : Dr. Adrien Turamyenyirijuru is a PhD
Graduate in Crops, Horticulture and Soils Department with Specialization in Agronomy, from Egerton University/ Kenya. Dr. Adrien holds an MSc Degree in Sustainable Soil Resource Management from University of Nairobi/ Kenya and BSc Degree in Crop Production and Horticulture from the former National University of Rwanda. Dr. Adrien has two peer-reviewed publications, one research article accepted for publication and one research article under review within the field of Agronomy. Dr. Adrien has research interests in crop production, soil management and closely related research fields. At UR-CAVM, Dr. Adrien is currently an Assistant Lecturer in Crop Sciences Department and he is the SEAD Project Local Coordinator.
Title : Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield and Quality Response to Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilizer Rates in Rwanda
Abstract : Potato is a strategic commodity with the potential to improve food and nutrition security and to generate income in Rwanda. Despite its potential, potato intensification remains low, translating into low yield. The low yield is occasioned mainly by the decline in soil fertility. In addition, farmers adapt a blanket fertilizer recommendation rate which is not sensitive to the actual crop needs. Field experiments were conducted in Birunga, Mudende [L1] and Buberuka, Rwerere [L2] highlands Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZs), during season A 2017 [S1] and B 2017 [S2] to determine the effects of rates of N, P and K on yield and quality of potato. The experiments were laid out using a Randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement, with four replicates. Factors were N rates (NX) : (i) N0-0 kg ha-1, (ii) N50-50 kg ha-1 (iii) N100-100 kg ha-1 ; P2O5 rates (PX) : (i) P0-0 kg ha-1, (ii) P50-50 kg ha-1, (iii) P100-100 kg ha-1and K2O rates (Kx) : (i) K0-0 kg ha-1and (ii) K50-50 kg ha-1. Data collected included growth parameters, tuber yield components and quality attributes. Analysis of variance for the data, performed using SAS-version 9.2, revealed the existence of a significantly different soil fertility gradient, between the two locations and farms within both locations. The two locational and seasonal results showed similar response patterns with regard to effects of N, P, K and their combinations. Effects of location, N, P, K and N×P×K were found to be significant on all growth, tuber yield and quality traits except number of main stems per plant, while the effect of season was significant on all growth and yield attributes and non-significant on number of main stems per plant and all potato quality traits. With regard to tuber yield, L1, S2, N100, P100 and K50 factor levels and N100P100K50 combination performed better than other treatments. N100P100K50 recorded highest tuber yields : (32.73 ± 0.43) t ha-1 [L1] and (29.36 ± 0.41) t ha-1 [L2] and (31.05 ± 0.52) t ha-1 for pooled ANOVA. Contrarily to what happened at Rwerere (L2), effects of N100 and N50 on tuber yield as well as N100P100K50 and N50P100K50 were not significantly different from each other at Mudende (L1). With regard to potato quality, except N100P100K0, N50P100K0 and N0P100K0 found suitable for making potato salad, whole boiled and canned potatoes, all other treatments (with > 1.080, > 14%, > 20% and < 0.30% of specific gravity, starch, dry matter and reducing sugar content, respectively) were qualified suitable for making French fries, chips and flakes. N50P100K50 is recommended to Birunga AEZ whereas N100P100K50 is recommended to Buberuka AEZ. Further studies, using a wide range of fertilizer rates, will be necessary to determine optimal combination of N, P and K nutrient rates in both locations.
Key words : Potato, Yield and Quality, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, Fertilizer Rates.
“God, Stewardship and Agriculture”
By Rosine Ndayishimiye Director of Training – Agriculture Bridge2Rwanda
Rosine Ndayishimiye is a proud farmer and Rwandan social entrepreneur passionate about strategic problem-solving in agriculture. She is the Director of Training at Bridge2Rwanda. She leads a stewardship center for Foundations for Farming in Rwanda, a faith-based conservation agriculture training program. Through Foundations for Farming, Rosine and her team are hosting conservation agriculture training programs for Rwandan farmers and a 6-month mentorship and internship program for University of Rwanda College of Agriculture fresh graduates.
Before joining Bridge2Rwanda, Rosine had various roles and experiences in auditing, consulting, and corporate finance from PwC Boston, Karisimbi Business Partners, and NISK Capital. In addition, she has run her own businesses since age 16. Rosine is a certified Foundations for Farming trainer and she holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Business Administration with a double concentration in Accounting and Global and Regional Studies from Babson College in Massachusetts, US.
About Us - Foundations for Farming
Foundations for Farming (FFF) is faith based farming organization, headquartered in Harare, Zimbabwe. The FFF farming method is a simple, low cost conservation farming method specifically designed to help low income, small-holder farmers make a profit and improve their lives. The method was developed for commercial applications and small holder farmers in Zimbabwe over 30 years ago by Brian Oldrieve, a successful faith-driven Zimbabwean farmer. Following the collapse of Zimbabwe’s economy in 2000, Brian partnered with Craig Deall, another faith-driven farmer whose land had been seized by the Zimbabwe government, to focus FFF on meeting the needs of smallholder farmers. They have grown the program as a means of sharing their faith and reducing hunger, poverty and dependency in Africa. FFF is rooted in the practices and principles of both conservation agriculture and Biblical truths.
About Us - Bridge2Rwanda
Bridge2Rwanda (B2R) is committed to introducing the practices and principles of Foundations for Farming (FFF) to small holder farmers in Rwanda and to mobilizing a new generation of educated young people to become agriculture entrepreneurs.